This is a list of general scientific terms used in the Evangelion franchise.
Anti A.T. Field
An Anti A.T. Field (アンチＡ.Ｔ.フィールド, "Anchi Ē Tī Fīrudo") is the term given to a type of energy that S² Engines are capable of producing which neutralizes existing A.T. Fields. The result is that individual A.T. Fields - the light of the soul, barrier of the heart, the "ego" - collapse, and the soul is freed from the body. In Lilin this results in the individual's body reverting back to its original form of LCL. This happens because a body cannot maintain its shape without an A.T. Field. On a global scale the effects of an Anti A.T. Field are apocalyptic as all life is destroyed by Third Impact in The End of Evangelion.
The Anti A.T. Field generated by Adam in Second Impact was powerful enough to exterminate all local life, including microorganisms. If Adam had not exploded, it's possible that the Anti A.T. Field being generated by him would have been able to exterminate all life on Earth. Instead, the entire South Pole was "formatted" into an uninhabitable "dead sea".
In The End of Evangelion, at the beginning of Third Impact, the Mass Production Evangelions use their combined S² Engines in conjunction with Evangelion Unit-01 to create a large Anti A.T. Field which destroys much of the surrounding Tokyo-3 area, revealing Lilith's Egg in its wake.
Although the term is first used in Evangelion 3.0: You Can (Not) Redo, the actual series appears much earlier, back in the first movie, Evangelion: 1.0 You Are (Not) Alone, where Rei Ayanami is introduced.
In Evangelion 3.0, a new clone of Rei replaces the previously, more developed Rei. This Rei is apparently from an earlier batch of clones, as noticed by Asuka.
During the scene where Shinji plays Shogi with Fuyutsuki, a group of many Rei heads can be seen in the background, stored in hexagonal cavities resembling a hive, also being part of the Ayanami Series.
The Shikinami series is a series of clones that was made from the DNA of an unknown donnor, it appears in the Rebuild of Evangelion tetralogy.
Although the term is first used in Evangelion 3.0+1.0 Thrice Upon A Time the actual series appears much earlier, back in the second movie, Evangelion: 2.0 You Can (Not) Advance, where Asuka Langley Shikinami is introduced.
After the reactivation of Evangelion 13. Asuka meets her original model before being absorbed by the unit, later during the Human Instrumentaly the truth about Asuka is revealed being the sole survivor of the series of clones created to pilot the Evangelion Unit-02, Asuka is old enough to remember having met Yui Ikari before she was absorbed by Evangelion Unit-01.
Curse of Eva
It is currently unknown if the Curse of Eva has any other effects and what exactly triggers this "Curse", as the term is never used in the movie after it was first mentioned. Though it seems directly connected to a pilot making contact with LCL and, between the Entry-Plug and LCL, creating a womb-like container preventing the pilot from aging while within it.
Another theory may be the Curse of Eva is a lie created by Asuka to hide to Shinji the fact she is a clone from the Shikinami series
A Dirac Sea (ディラックの海, "Dirakku no Umi"), in terms of Neon Genesis Evangelion, is seen as a large "shadow" in Episode 16. During the attack by the Angel Leliel, a sea of Dirac is created in Tokyo-3. Upon seeing it, Ritsuko identifies it as a Dirac Sea, and goes on to describe it; she essentially identifies it as a pocket-world of sorts, from which escape is impossible.
"It's six hundred eighty meters in diameter with a thickness of three nanometers. The ultra-thin space is supported by an inwardly-directed A.T. Field. The inside is an imaginary space, called a Sea of Dirac. I think it's probably connected to another universe."
- — Ritsuko
As a side note, a "Dirac Sea" is a real, scientific term (though, it was not fully explained on-screen). It is a theoretical model of the vacuum as an infinite sea of particles possessing negative energy, that was theorized by the British physicist, Paul Dirac, in 1930.
The Polysomes are service robots located in the testing tank of the Pribnow box in which the Evangelion Simulation bodies are submerged. Each polysome is armed with a laser, and they seem to be normally tasked with eradicating any contamination in the clean room which might interfere with tests involving the simulation bodies. In Episode 13, they are used to try to fight the Angel Ireul as it infects the Pribnow box and the simulation bodies, however because Ireul possesses an A.T. Field, their lasers have no effect.
On a side note, in the real world, "Polysome" is the genetics term for a cluster of ribosomes, which translate mRNA (created from DNA) into proteins.
Salvaging is the act of extracting a soul from a donor and embedding it into a clone or one of the Evangelions. The donor may be alive, as in the case of Yui Ikari (Unit-01) and Kyoko Zeppelin Sohryu (Unit-02), or deceased as in the case of Rei I, parts of whose soul where transfered into Rei II and possibly Unit-00, Rei II, whose Soul was transfered into Rei III, and Kaworu Nagisa, possessor of Adam's soul, whose soul was transfered back into the Adam embryo (in Gendo's hand), after his death.
Salvaging was also attempted on two occasions in order to fix a soul into a re-creation of its original body. These attempts were both failures, although Shinji did re-form on his own shortly after the attempt to salvage him failed. The earlier attempt to salvage Yui's soul failed completely, and she remained in Unit-01. However, this attempt did somehow result in the creation of Rei, a person based upon Yui's DNA who possessed Lilith's soul.
The exact mechanics of soul salvaging are never detailed, but when the donor is living, it involves a Contact Experiment.